Adrian Leuchtmann (Prof. Dr. )
ETH Zurich
Institute of Integrative Biology
Plant Ecological Genetics
Evolutionary Mycology
Postal Address:
Universitätsstrasse 16
CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
tel +41 044 632 38 54
fax +41 044 632 14 63



Curriculum vitae




Date of Birth:

April 27, 1956, Sarnen, Switzerland


Citizen of Switzerland





Date awarded

Kollegium Sarnen

B.S. (Matura Type B)



M.S. (dipl. natw. ETH)



Ph. D. (Dr. sc. nat.)



Lecturer (PD)



Professional Experience

Research Mycologist and Lecturer, ETH-Zürich

1989 - present

Sabbatical, University of Kentucky, U. S. A.

1995 (2 months)

Visiting Scholar (post doc), Indiana University, U.S.A.

1987 - May 1989

Research Associate and Teaching Assistant, ETH-Zürich

1984 - 1986




Research interests

I am a trained mycologist with a strong background in taxonomy and evolutionary biology. The main focus of my research during the past 14 years was the evolutionary biology of grass endophytes. It included the assessment of genetic diversity, aspects of population biology, host specificity of fungi, and underlying mechanisms of speciation. More recently, mechanisms of host specialzation of Botanophila flies and their interaction with European Epichloë species has become an additional interest.

A second area of research are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) including aspects of molecular ecology and mycorrhizal functioning.

List of Publications


Articles in Refereed Journals

Articles in other Scientific Journals or Proceedings

Book Chapters

Articles in Popular Journals



Articles in Refereed Journals

LEUCHTMANN, A. 1984. Ueber Phaeosphaeria Miyake und andere bitunicate Ascomyceten mit querseptierten Ascosporen. Sydowia 37: 75-194.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1985. Kulturversuche mit einigen Arten der Gattung Lophiostoma Ces. & De Not. Sydowia 38: 158-170.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1988a. Atkinsonella hypoxylon and Balansia cyperi, epiphytic members of the Balansiae. Mycologia 80: 192-199.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1988b. Experimental infection of host grasses and sedges with Atkinsonella hypoxylon und Balansia cyperi. Mycologia 80: 291-297.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1989a. Experimental evidence for genetic variation in compatibility between the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon and its three host grasses. Evolution 43: 825-834.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY. K. 1989b. Isozyme variation in the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon within and among populations of its host grasses. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 2600-2607.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1989c. Morphological, cultural and mating studies on Atkinsonella, including A. texensis. Mycologia 81: 692-701.
CLAY, K. and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1989. Infection of woodland grasses by fungal endophytes. Mycologia 81: 805-811.
PLOWMAN, T. C., LEUCHTMANN, A., BLANEY, C. and CLAY, K. 1990. Significance of the fungus Balansia cyperi infecting medicinal species of Cyperus (Cyperaceae) from Amazonia. Economic Botany 44: 452-462.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1990. Isozyme variation in the Acremonium/Epichloë fungal endophyte complex. Phytophathology 80: 1133-1139.
POWELL, R. G., PLATTNER, R. D., YATES, S. G., CLAY, K., and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1990. Ergobalansine, a new ergot-type peptide alkaloid isolated from Cenchrus echinatus (sandbur grass) infected with Balansia obtecta, and produced in liquid cultures of B. obtecta and Balansia cyperi. Journal of Natural Products 53: 1272-1279.
PETRINI, L. E., PETRINI, O., LEUCHTMANN, A. and CARROLL, G. C. 1991. Conifer-inhabiting species of Phyllosticta. Sydowia 43: 148-169.
LEUCHTMANN, A., PETRINI, O., PETRINI, L. E., and CARROLL, G. C. 1992. Isozyme polymorphism in six endophytic Phyllosticta species. Mycological Research 96: 287-294.
HUBER, W., and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1992. Genetic differentiation of the Erigeron species (Asteraceae) in the Alps: A case of unusual allozymic uniformity. Plant Systematics and Evolution 183: 1-16.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1992. Systematics, distribution and host secificity of grass endophytes. Natural Toxins 1:150-162.
RODRIGUES, K. F., LEUCHTMANN. A., and PETRINI, O. 1993. Endophytic species of Xylaria: Cultural and isozymic studies. Sydowia 45: 116-138.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and CLAY, K. 1993. Nonreciprocal compatibility between Epichloë typhina and four host grasses. Mycologia 85: 157-163.
CHRISTENSEN, M. J., LEUCHTMANN, A., ROWAN, D. D., and TAPPER, B. A. 1993. Taxonomy of Acremonium endophytes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), and perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne). Mycological Research 97: 1083-1092. (see Abstract)
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1994. Isozyme relationships of Acremonium endophytes from twelve Festuca species. Mycological Research 98: 25-33. (see Abstract)
SCHARDL, C. L., LEUCHTMANN, A., TSAI, H.-F., COLLETT, M., and WATT, D. M., SCOTT, D.B. 1994. Origin of a fungal symbiont of perennial ryegrass by interspecific hybridization of a mutualist with the ryegrass choke pathogen, Epichloë typhina. Genetics 136: 1307-1317.
LEUCHTMANN, A., SCHARDL, C. L, and SIEGEL, M. R. 1994. Sexual compatibility and taxonomy of a new species of Epichloë symbiotic with fine fescue grasses. Mycologia 86: 802-812. (see Abstract)
RODRIGUES, K. F., PETRINI, O., and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1995. Variability among isolates of Xylaria cubensis as determined by isozyme analysis and somatic incompatibility tests. Mycologia 87: 592-596.
CHUNG, K.-R., LEUCHTMANN, A., and SCHARDL, D. L. 1996. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA and plasmids in the ascomycetous fungus, Epichloë typhina. Genetics 142: 259-265.
LEUCHTMANN, A., PETRINI, O., AND SAMUELS, G. J. 1996. Isozyme subgroups in Trichoderma section Longibrachiatum. Mycologia 88: 384-394.
LEUCHTMANN, A., and CLAY, K. 1996. Isozyme evidence for host races of the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon (Clavicipitaceae) infecting the Danthonia (Poaceae) complex in the Southern Appalachians. American Journal of Botany 83: 1144-1152. (see Abstract)
BUCHELI, E., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 1996. Evidence for genetic differentiation between choke-inducing and asymptomatic strains of the Epichloë grass endophyte from Brachypodium sylvaticum. Evolution 50: 1879-1887. (see Abstract)
SCHARDL, C. L., LEUCHTMANN, A., CHUNG, K.-R., PENNY, D., AND SIEGEL, M. R. 1997. Coevolution by common descent of fungal symbionts (Epichloë spp.) and grass hosts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 133-143. (see Abstract)
MALINOWSKI, D., LEUCHTMANN, A., SCHMIDT, D., AND NÖSBERGER, J. 1997. Growth and water status in meadow fescue is affected by Neotyphodium und Phialophora species endophytes. Agromomy Journal 89: 673-678.
MALINOWSKI, D., LEUCHTMANN, A., SCHMIDT, D., AND NÖSBERGER, J. 1997. Symbiosis with Neotyphodium uncinatum endophyte may increase the competitive ability of meadow fescue. Agronomy Journal 89: 833-839.
LEUCHTMANN, A., AND SCHARDL, C. L. 1998. Mating compatibility and phylogenetic relationships among two new species of Epichloë and other congeneric European species. Mycological Research 102: 1169-1182. (see Abstract)
SCHARDL, C. L., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 1999. Three new species of Epichloë symbiotic with North American grasses. Mycologia 91: 95-107. (see Abstract)
MEJIER, G., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 1999 Multistrain infections of the grass Brachypodium sylvaticum by its fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica. New Phytologist 141: 355-368. (see Abstract)
FALLAH, P. M., SHEARER, C. A., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 1999. Freshwater ascomycetes: Phaeosphaeria vilasenis (Pleosporales), a new species from a lake in Wisconsin. Nova Hedwigia 68: 399-404.
BREM, D., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 1999. High prevalence of horizontal transmission of the fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH 65: 3-12. (see Abstract)
LEUCHTMANN, A., SCHMIDT, D., AND BUSH, L. P. 2000. Different levels of protective alkaloids in grasses with stroma-forming and seed-transmitted Epichloë/Neotyphodium endophytes. Journal of Chemical Ecology (in press). (see Abstract)
MEIJER, G., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2000. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on disease expression (stroma formation) and plant growth in Brachypodium sylvaticum infected by Epichloë typhina. Oikos 91: 446-458.
BREM, D., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2001. Epichloë grass endophytes increase herbivore resistance in the woodland grass Brachypodium sylvaticum. Oecologia 126: 522-530.
MEIJER, G., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2001. Fungal genotype controls mutualism and sex in Brachypodium sylvaticum infected by Epichloë sylvatica. Acta Biologica Hungarica 52: 249-263.
CRAVEN, K. D., HSIAU, P. T. W. , LEUCHTMANN, A., HOLLIN, W., AND SCHARDL, C. L. 2001. Multigene phylogeny of Epichloë species, fungal symbionts of grasses. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 14-34.
CRAVEN, K. D., BLANKENSHIP, J. D., LEUCHTMANN, A., HIGNIGHT, K. AND SCHARDL, C. L. 2001. Hybrid fungal endophytes symbiotic with the grass Lolium pratense. Sydowia 53: 44-73.
BREM, D., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2002. Interspecific competition of endophyte infected vs. uninfected plants of two woodland grass species. Oikos 69: 281-290.
HARTWIG, U. A., WITTMANN, P., BRAUN, R., HARTWIG-RÄZ, B., JANSA, J., MOZAFAR, A., LÜSCHER, A., LEUCHTMANN, A., FROSSARD, E., AND NÖSBERGER, J. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhiza infection enhances the growth response of Lolium perenne to elevated atmospheric pCO2. Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 1207-1213.
BREM, D., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2003. Molecular evidence for host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola after presumed host shifts. Evolution 57: 37-51.
BULTMAN, T. L., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2003. A test of host specialization by insect vectors as a mechanism for reproductive isolation among entomophilous fungal species. Oikos 103: 681-687.
GAMPER, H., PETER, M., JANSA, J., LÜSCHER, A., HARTWIG, U. A., AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2004. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefit from seven years of free air CO2 enrichment in well-fertilised grass and legume monocultures. Global Change Biology (in press).
MOON, C. D., CRAVEN, K. D., LEUCHTMANN, A. L., CLEMENT, S. L. & SCHARDL, C. L. (2004) Prevalence of interspecific hybrids amongst fungal endophytes of grasses. Molecular Ecology, (in press).

Articles in other Scientific Journals or Proceedings

BALTISBERGER, M. and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1985. Ergänzungen zur Verbreitung einiger Gefässpflanzen im Wallis. Bulltin Murithienne 103: 103-113.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and MUELLER, E. 1986. Ueber Thyridium vestitum und sein Anamorph (Ascomycetes). Botanica Helvetica. 96(2): 283-287.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1987a. Phaeosphaeria padellana und Massariosphaeria triseptata, zwei neue bitunicate Ascomyceten aus den Alpen. Mycologia Helvetica 2: 183-191.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1987b. Species of Heterosphaeria (Discomycetes) and their anamorphs. Mycotaxon 28(2): 261-284.
BALTISBERGER, M. and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1990. Ergänzungen zur Verbreitung einiger Gefässpflanzen im Kanton Graubünden. Botanica Helvetica 100: 17-27.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and PETRINI, O. 1990. Protoplasts of endophytic Acremonium species, a tool for genetic manipulation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acremonium / Grass Interactions. Louisiana Agric. Experim. Station, Baton Rouge, pp. 157-159.
LEUCHTMANN, A. and NEWELL, S. Y. 1991. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, a new species on Spartina. Mycotaxon 41: 1-7.
BALTISBERGER, M. and LEUCHTMANN, A. 1991. Investigations on some Gramineae from Albania and Greece. Ber. Geobot. Inst. ETH, Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 57: 182-192.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1996. Genetic and biological diversity of grass endophytes. In: KROHN, K., AND PAUL, V. H. (eds.), The 2nd International Conference on Harmful and Beneficial Microorganisms in Grassland, Pastures and Turf. IOCB wprs Bulletin 19 (7): 175-184.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1996. Isoenzyme als taxonomisches Werkzeug - das Beispiel von Gras-Endophyten. Mycologia Helvetica 8: 81-82.
SCHARDL, C. L., TSAI, H.-F., CHUNG, K-R., LEUCHTMANN, A., AND SIEGEL, M. R. 1997. Evolution of Epichloë species symbioses with grasses. In: STACEY, G., MULLIN, B., AND GRESSHOFF, P. M. (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, pp. 541-546. St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A.
LEUCHTMANN, A., AND BULTMAN, T. L. 2001. Epichloë grass endophytes and their interaction with a symbiotic fly. In: PAUL, V. H., AND DAPPRICH, P. D. (eds.), pp. 103-107. The grassland conference 2000. Proceedings of the 4th international Neotyphodium/grass interactions symposium. Universität-Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Soest, Germany.
BREM, D. AND LEUCHTMANN, A. 2001. Influence of endophyte genotype on competitive abilities of Brachypodium sylvaticum. In: PAUL, V. H., AND DAPPRICH, P. D. (eds.), pp. 543-546. The grassland conference 2000. Proceedings of the 4th international Neotyphodium/grass interactions symposium. Universität-Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Soest, Germany.

Book Chapters

LEUCHTMANN, A. 1987. Phaeosphaeria in the arctic and alpine zones. In: LAURSEN, G.A., AMMIRATI, J.F., und REDHEAD, S.A. (eds.), Arctic and Alpine Mycology II, pp.153-161. Plenum Pub. Corp., New York.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1994. Isozyme characterization, persistence and compatibility of fungal and grass mutualists. In: BACON, C. W., AND WHITE, J., Jr, (eds.), Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses, pp. 21-33. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, U. S. A.
LEUCHTMANN, A., and CLAY, K. 1997. The population biology of grass endophytes. Chapter 12. In: CARROLL, G., AND TUDZYNSKI, P. (eds.), The Mycota. Vol. V Part A: Plant Relationships, pp. 185-202. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 1997. Ecological diversity in Neotyphodium-infected grasses as influenced by host and fungus characteristics. In: BACON, C. W. AND HILL N. (eds.), Neotyphodium/grass interactions, pp. 93-108. Plenum Press, New York, London.
LEUCHTMANN, A. 2003. Taxonomy and diversity of Epichloë endophytes. In: White, J. F., Jr., Bacon, C. W., Hywel-Jones, N., and Spatafora, J. (eds.), The Clavicipitalean Fungi: Evolutionary Biology, Chemistry, Biocontrol, and Cultural Impacts, pp. 169-194. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Articles in Popular Journals

LEUCHTMANN, A. 1996. Endophyten-Pflanzenschutz. Die Grüne, Heft 32, p.22-23.